- Languages include Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and English.
- Silence is valued.
- Eye contact may be considered inappropriate or disrespectful.
- Criticism or disagreement is not expressed verbally.
- Head nodding does not necessarily mean agreement.
- The word no may be interpreted as disrespect for others.
- Time orientation and personal space preferences
- Time orientation reflects respect for the past, but includes emphasis on the present and the
- Preference is for formal personal space except with family and close friends.
- Usually members do not touch others during conversation.
- Touching is unacceptable except with members of the opposite sex.
- The head is considered to be sacred; therefore touching someone on the head is disrespectful.
- Social Roles
- Devoted to tradition.
- Large extended families are common.
- Loyalty and honor to the media and extended family are valued.
- Family unit is structured and hierarchical.
- The men have the power and authority, while women are expected to be obedient.
- Education is viewed as important.
- Religions include Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity.
- Social organizations are important within the community.
- Health and Illness
- Health is the state of physical and spiritual harmony with nature and a balance between positive
and negative energy forces, such as yin and yang.
- A healthy body is viewed as a gift from ancestors.
- Three illnesses viewed as an imbalance between yin and yang.
- Yin foods are cold, and yang foods are hot; Asians eat cold foods when they have a hot illness,
and Asians eat hot foods when they have a cold illness.
- Illness is attributed to prolonged sitting, lying, or over exertion.
- Health Risks
- Heart Disease
- Lactose Intolerance
- Avoid physical touching and closeness. Only touch
a patient’s head when necessary and be sure to inform the patient prior to doing so.
- Limit eye contact.
- Avoid gesturing of the hands.
- If possible, a female patient prefers a female healthcare provider.
- Clarify responses to questions and expectations of the healthcare provider.
- Be flexible and avoid a rigid schedule of care.
- Encourage the family’s involvement of care.
- Alternative modes of healing include herbs, acupuncture, restoration with a balance of foods, massage,
and offering of prayers and incenses.