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Cultural Diversity in Nursing

Asian Culture

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Asian/Asian-American

  1. Communication
    1. Languages include Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and English.
    2. Silence is valued.
    3. Eye contact may be considered inappropriate or disrespectful.
    4. Criticism or disagreement is not expressed verbally.
    5. Head nodding does not necessarily mean agreement.
    6. The word no may be interpreted as disrespect for others.
  2. Time orientation and personal space preferences
  3. Time orientation reflects respect for the past, but includes emphasis on the present and the future.
  4. Preference is for formal personal space except with family and close friends.
  5. Usually members do not touch others during conversation.
  6. Touching is unacceptable except with members of the opposite sex.
  7. The head is considered to be sacred; therefore touching someone on the head is disrespectful.
  8. Social Roles
    1. Devoted to tradition.
    2. Large extended families are common.
    3. Loyalty and honor to the media and extended family are valued.
    4. Family unit is structured and hierarchical.
    5. The men have the power and authority, while women are expected to be obedient.
    6. Education is viewed as important.
    7. Religions include Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity.
    8. Social organizations are important within the community.
  9. Health and Illness
    1. Health is the state of physical and spiritual harmony with nature and a balance between positive and negative energy forces, such as yin and yang.
    2. A healthy body is viewed as a gift from ancestors.
    3. Three illnesses viewed as an imbalance between yin and yang.
    4. Yin foods are cold, and yang foods are hot; Asians eat cold foods when they have a hot illness, and Asians eat hot foods when they have a cold illness.
    5. Illness is attributed to prolonged sitting, lying, or over exertion. 
  10. Health Risks
    1. Hypertension.
    2. Heart Disease
    3. Cancer
    4. Lactose Intolerance
    5. Thalassemia
  11. Interventions
    1. Avoid physical touching and closeness.  Only touch a patient’s head when necessary and be sure to inform the patient prior to doing so.
    2. Limit eye contact. 
    3. Avoid gesturing of the hands.
    4. If possible, a female patient prefers a female healthcare provider.
    5. Clarify responses to questions and expectations of the healthcare provider.
    6. Be flexible and avoid a rigid schedule of care.
    7. Encourage the family’s involvement of care.
    8. Alternative modes of healing include herbs, acupuncture, restoration with a balance of foods, massage, and offering of prayers and incenses. 

 

 

 

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Silvestri, L.A. (2005). Comprehensive review for the NCLEX-RN examination. St. Louuis, Missouri: Saunders Publishing.

Advanced Clinical Practicum
Emily Gausman-Katie Glenn-Brandon Williams-Jennifer Zucal-Benjamin Bickford-Ashley Johnson-Amelia Esch-Frances Yehl-Nichole Nagle-Rebecca Snyder